Breast Cancer Prevention Institute Fact Sheet

Breast Cancer Prevention Institute Fact Sheet

Epidemiologic Studies: Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk
Updated November 2013

BC: Breast cancer

Luminal A cancer:  Estrogen positive and HER2 negative
FFTP:  First full-term pregnancy Nulliparous:Never given birth

IA: Induced abortion

OR: Odds ratio

No.

Year Reference

OR
(95% CI)

Statistically
Significant

Pos/Neg
Correlation

Country/
Population

1 1957

Segi M, et al. An epidemiological study on cancer in Japan. GANN. 48 1957;1–63. 

2.63 (1.85-3.75)

Yes Positive Japan
2 1968

Watanabe H, et al. Epidemiology and clinical aspects of breast cancer. [in Japanese], Nippon Rinsho 26, no. 8. 1968;1843–1849.

1.51 (0.91-2.53)
  Positive Japan
3 1978

Dvoyrin VV, et al. Role of women’s reproductive status in the development of breast cancer. Methods and Progress in Breast cancer Epidemiology Research Tallin 1978;53-63.

1.71 (0.80-3.64)
  Positive USSR/
Estonia
4 1979

Burany B. Gestational characteristics in women with breast cancer. Jugosil Ginekol Opstet 1979;19:237-47 (in Serbo-Croatian).

0.50 (0.33-0.74)
  Negative Yugoslavia
5 1981

Pike MC, et al. Oral contraceptive use and early abortion as risk factors for breast cancer in young women. Br J Cancer 43, no. 1. 1981;72-6.

2.37 (0.85-6.93)
  Positive United States
6 1982

Nishhiyama, F. The epidemiology of breast cancer in Tokushima prefecture. Shikoku Ichi 1982; 38:333-43 (in Japanese).

2.52 (1.99-3.20)
Yes Positive Japan
7 1983

Brinton LA, et al.  Reproductive factors in the etiology of breast cancer.  Br J Cancer 47, no. 6. 1983:757-762.

1.2 (0.6-2.3)
  Positive United States
8 1984

Le M-G, Bachelot A, et al. Oral contraceptive use and breast or cervical cancer: Preliminary results of a case-control study In: Wolff J-P, Scott JS, eds. Hormones and sexual factors in human cancer aetiology. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1984:139-47.

1.3 (0.97-1.77)
  Positive France
9 1985

Hirohata T, et al. Occurrence of breast cancer in relation to diet and reproductive history: a case-control study in Fukuoka, Japan. Natl Cancer Inst Monographs 69 1985:187-90.

1.52 (0.93-2.48)
  Positive Japan
10 1987

LaVecchia C, et al. General epidemiology of breast cancer in northern Italy. Intl J of Epidemiol. 1987;16 3:347-355.

1.19 (0.82-1.71)
  Positive Italy
11 1988

Ewertz M, et al. Risk of breast cancer in relation to reproductive factors in Denmark. Br J Cancer 58, no. 1 1988:99-104. 

3.85 (1.08-13.6)
Yes Positive Denmark
12 1988

Luporsi E. (1988), in Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.

1.8 (1.0-3.5)
Yes Positive France
13 1988

Zaridze DG. (1988) in Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.

2.7 (0.7-10.3)
[if ≥ 2 IA
4.0 (2.1-7.8)]
Yes Positive Russia
14 1988

Rosenberg L, et al. Breast cancer in relation to the occurrence and the time of the induced and spontaneous abortion. Amer J Epidemiol 127, no. 5 1988:981-989.

1.2 (1.0-1.6)
Yes Positive United States
15 1989

Harris BM, et al. Risk of cancer of the breast after legal abortion during first trimester: a Swedish register study. Br Medical J 299, no. 6713 1989:1430-2.

0.77 (0.58-0.99)
  Negative Sweden/
Norway
16 1989

Howe HL, et al. Early abortion and breast cancer risk among women under age 40. Intl J Epidemiol 18, no 2 1989:300-4.

1.9 (1.2-3.0)
Yes Positive United States
17 1989

Remennick L. Reproductive patterns in cancer incidence in women: A population based correlation study in the USSR. Intl J Epidemiol 1989 (18) 3:498-510. 

data not in form of OR
  Positive USSR
18 1990

Adami HO, et al. Absence of association between reproductive variables and the risk of breast cancer in young women in Sweden and Norway. Br J Cancer 62, no 1 1990:122–6.

0.8 (0.5-1.1)
[if ≥ 2 IA
1.3 (0.6-3.0)]
  Positive Sweden/
Norway
19 1991

Parazzini F, et al. Spontaneous and induced abortions and risk of breast cancer. Intl J Cancer 48, no. 6 1991:816-20.

1.0 (0.8-1.3)
  Negative Italy
20 1992

Parazinni F, et al. Menstrual and reproductive factors and breast cancer in women with family history of the disease. Intl J of Cancer vol 51 1992:677-681.

0.9 (0.8-1.1)
  Negative Italy
21 1993

Laing AE, et al. Breast cancer risk factors in African-American women: The Howard University tumor registry experience. J Natl Med Assoc 85 1993:931-939.

4.7 (2.6-8.4)
if IA and diagnosed
 BC ≥ 50 yo
[1.5 (0.7-3.5 )
if BC ≤ 40 yo]
Yes

Positive United
States
22 1993

La Vecchia C, et al. Long-term impact of reproductive factors on cancer risk.  Int J Cancer 53, no 2 1993:215-9.

1.0 p < 0.05   Negative Italy
23 1993

Moseson M, et al. The influence of medical conditions associated with hormones  on the risk of breast cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:1000-9.

1.0 (0.7-1.4)   Negative United
States
24 1994

Andrieu N, Clavel F, Gairard B,  Piana L, Bremond A, Lansac J, Flamant R, Renaud R. Familial risk of breast cancer and abortion. Cancer Detect Prevent 1994;18(1):51-55.

1.2 (0.8-1.8)
  Positive France
25 1994

Daling JR, et al. Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion.  J Natl Cancer Inst 86, no. 21 1994;1584-92.

1.5 (1.2-1.9)
Yes Positive United States
26 1994

Laing AE, et al. Reproductive and lifestyle factors for breast cancer in African-American women. Gent Epidemiol 1994;11:A300.

2.4 (1.0-6.0)
Yes Positive United States
27 1994

White E, et al. Breast cancer among young US women in relation to oral contraceptive use. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:505-14.

1.36 (1.11-1.67)
[if IA before FFTP and nulliparous
1.7 (1.11-2.6)]
Yes Positive United States
28 1995

Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.

1.5 (1.1-1.9)
Yes Positive Multi-National
29 1995

Brinton LA, et al. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among younger women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:827-35.

[0.98 (0.8-1.2)
if 1 IA]
[1.02 (0.8-1.4)
if ≥ 2 IA]
  Negative United States
30 1995

Bu L, et al. Risk of breast cancer associated with induced abortion in a population at low risk of breast cancer. Amer J Epidemiol 141 1995;S85.

2.9 (1.9-4.4)
[if BrCa ≤ 35 yo
4.5 (1.9-10.7)]
[if ≤ 2 IA
3.6 (2.2-6.0)]
Yes Positive China
31 1995

Lipworth L, et al. Abortion and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece. Intl J Cancer 61, no. 2 1995;181-4.

1.51 (1.24-1.84)
[if IA before FFTP
2.06 (1.45-2.9)]
Yes Positive Greece
32 1995

Rookus MA, et al. Breast Cancer risk after an induced abortion, a Dutch case-control study. Amer J Epidemiol 1995;141:S54 (abstract 214).

1.9 (1.2-3.1)
Yes Positive Netherlands
33 1996

Daling JR, Brinton LA, Voigt LF, et al.  Risk of breast cancer among white women following induced abortion. Amer J Epidemiol 1996;144:373-380.

1.3 (1.0-1.6)
Yes Positive United States
34 1996

Newcomb PA, et al. Pregnancy termination in relation to risk of breast cancer. J Amer Med Assoc 275, no. 4 1996:283-287.

1.23 (1.0-1.51) 
Yes Positive United States
35 1996

Rookus MA, van Leeuwan FE. Induced abortion and risk for breast cancer: reporting (recall) bias in a Dutch case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst  1996;88:1759-1764.

1.9 (1.1-3.2)
[if before FTP
2.6 (1.0-6.8)]
Yes Positive Netherlands
36 1996

Talamini, R, et al. The role of reproductive and menstrual factors in cancer of the breast before and after menopause. European J Cancer 32, no. 2 1996:303-310.

1.2 (1.0-1.5)   
[if premenopausal BC 1.4 (1.0-2.0)]
Yes Positive Italy
37 1996

Tavani A, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Negri E, D’avanao B, Decarli A. Abortion and breast cancer risk. Intl J Cancer 1996;65:401-05.

1.2 (1.0-1.5)
Yes Positive Italy
38 1996

Wu AH, et al. Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Br J Cancer 73, no. 5 1996:680-6.

1.92 (0.7-5.3)
  Positive United States
39 1997

Melbye M, et al. Induced abortion and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med  336, no. 2. 1997:81-85.

1.38 (1.0-1.9)
If IA ≥ 12 week gestation
[1.89 (1.11-3.22)
≥ 18 wks
gestation]
Yes Positive Denmark
40 1997

Palmer J. Induced and spontaneous abortion in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control  8, no. 6 1997:841-849.

1.4 (0.9-2.2)
 If 1 IA nulliparous women
[1.4 (1.0-1.8)
If 1 IA parous women]
  Positive United States
41 1999

Fioretti F. Risk factors for breast cancer in nulliparous women. Br J Cancer 1999 78 (11/12) 1923-1928.

0.97 (0.64-1.47)
[if IA ≥ 30yo
1.75 (1.03-2.97)]



Yes

Positive Italy
42 1999

Marcus, PM, et al. Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk. Amer J Public Health 89, no. 8 1999:1244-1247.

1.3 (0.2-9.7)
if  IA nulliparous
  Positive United States
43 2000

Lazovich D, et al. Induced abortion and breast cancer risk.Epidemiol 11, no. 1 2000:76-80.

1.1 (0.7-1.7)
[If IA nulliparous
1.7 (0.6-5.4)]
  Positive United States
44 2000

Newcomb, PA. A record-based evaluation of induced abortion and breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes and Control 11, no. 9 2000:777-781.

0.9 (0.5-1.6)
  Negative United States
45 2000

Tang M, et al. Induced abortion in relation to breast cancer among parous women: A birth certificate registry study. Epidemiology Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 11, no. 2 2000:177-180.

0.9 (0.7-1.2)
  Negative United States
46 2001

Goldacre MJ, et al. Abortion and breast cancer: a case-control record linkage study. J Epidemiol & Community Health 55, no. 5 2001:336-7.

0.83 (0.74-0.93)
  Negative Britain
47 2001

Robertson C, et al. The association between induced and spontaneous abortion and risk of breast cancer in Slovenian women aged 25-54. Breast 2001;10:291-298.

2.71 (0.72-10.26)
if IA nulliparous
  Positive Slovenia
48 2001

Sanderson M, et al. Abortion history and breast cancer risk: Results from the Shangai Breast Cancer Study. Intl J Cancer  96, no. 6 2001:899-905.

1.3 (0.8-2.3)
if IA ≥ 3 and
post-menopausal BC
  Positive China
49 2002

Ye Z, et al. Breast cancer in relation to induced abortions in a cohort of Chinese women. Br J Cancer  87, no. 9. 2002:976.

1.06 (0.9-1.25)
[if IA ≥ 13 wks
1.95 (0.83-4.56)]
[if IA before FFTP
2.16 (0.79-5.91)]
  Positive China
50 2003

Becher H, Schmidt S, Chang-Claude J. Reproductive factors and familial predisposition for breast cancer by age 50 years. A Case control family study for assessing main effects and possible gene-environment interaction. Intl J Epidemiol 2003;32:38-50. 

1.35 (1.03-1.78)
Yes Positive Germany
51 2003

Erlandsson G, et al. Abortions and breast cancer: record-based case-control study. Intl J Cancer 103, no. 5. 2003:676-9.

0.8 (0.63-1.02)
  Negative Sweden
52 2003

Mahue-Giangreco M, Ursin G, Sullivan-Halley J, Bernstein L. Induced abortion, miscarriage, and breast cancer risk of young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers & Prev 2003;12:209-214.

1.05 (0.75-1.48)
  Positive United States
53 2003

Paoletti X, Clavel-Chapelon F. Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study. Intl J Cancer 106, no. 2 2003:270-6.

0.91 (0.82-0.99)
  Negative France
54 2004

Meeske K, et al. Impact of reproductive factors and lactation on breast carcinomas in situ. Intl J Cancer 2004 110:103-109.

1.04 (0.56-1.94)
  Positive United States
55 2004

Palmer JR, et al. A prospective study of induced abortion and breast cancer in African-American women. Cancer Causes & Control 15, no. 2 2004:105-11.

1.1 (0.8-1.4)
parous women
[0.9 (0.5-1.4)
nulliparous women]
  Positive United States
56 2005

Brewster DH. Risk of breast cancer after miscarriage or induced abortion: a Scottish record linkage case-control study. J Epidemiol & Community Health 59, no. 4 2005:283-287.

0.8 (0.72-0.89)
  Negative Scotland
57 2006

Reeves GK. Breast cancer risk in relation to abortion: Results from the EPIC study. Intl J Cancer 119, no. 7 2006:1741-5.

0.95 (0.87-1.03)
(8 countries:
4 with positive
association)
  Negative Europe
58 2006

Rosenblatt K. Induced abortions and the risk of all cancers combined and site-specific cancers in Shanghai. Cancer Causes and Control 17, no. 10 2006:1275-1280.

1.01 (.92-1.12)
  Positive China
59 2006

Tehranian N, et al. The effect of abortion on the risk of breast cancer. Iranian study presented at a conference at McMaster University. Available at: http://www.hdl.handle.net/10755/163877.

7.94 (2.05-26.21)
Yes Positive Iran
60 2007

Michels KB. Induced and spontaneous abortion and incidence of breast cancer among young women. Archives of Internal Medicine 167, no. 8 2007:814-820.

1.01 (0.88-1.87)
if IA nulliparous
  Negative United States
61 2007

Naieni  K, et al. Risk factors of breast cancer in north of Iran: a case-control in Mazandaran Province. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 8, no. 3 2007:395-8.

1.62 (1.13-2.31)
Yes Positive Iran
62 2008

Henderson K. Incomplete pregnancy is not associated with breast cancer risk: the California Teachers Study. Contraception 77, no. 6 2008:391-396.

0.98 (0.77-1.25)
if nulliparous
[1.08 (0.93-1.24)
if parous]
  Positive United States
63 2008

Lin, J et al. A case control study on risk factors of breast cancer among women in Cixi. Zhejiang Preventive Medicine, vol. 20, no. 6 June 2008:3-5.

1.64 (1.06-2.52)
Yes Positive China
64 2009

Dolle J, et al. Risk Factors for Triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 years. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, no. 4 2009:1157–66.

1.4 (1.1-1.8)
Yes Positive United States
65 2009

Ozmen V, et al. Breast cancer risk factors in Turkish women--a University Hospital based nested case control study. World J Surgical Oncology 7, no. 37 2009.

1.66 (1.38-1.99)
Yes Positive Turkey
66 2009

Xing P, et al. A case–control study of reproductive factors associated with subtypes of breast cancer in Northeast China. Medical Oncology 2009.

1.26 (1.05-1.52)
for luminal A
breast cancer
Yes Positive China
67 2011

Khachatryan L, et al. Influence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prolonged estrogen exposure on risk of breast cancer among women in Armenia. Health Care for Women Intl, no. 32 2011:953-971.

2.86 (1.02-8.04)
[1.77 (1.0-3.12)
if 1-3 IA]
Yes Positive Armenia
68 2012 Jiang AR, et al. Abortions and breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Jiangsu Province of China. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012;13:33-35. Available at:
http://www.apjcpcontrol.org/page/popup_paper_file_view.php?pno=MzMtMzUgMTIuMiZrY29kZT0yNzAxJmZubz0w&pgubun=i
3≥ IAs 2.50 (1.41-4.42)
Yes Positive China
69 2012 Lecarpentier J, et al. Variation in breast cancer risk associated with factors related to pregnancies according to truncating mutation location, in the French National BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carrier cohort (GENEPSO). Breast Cancer Research 2012, 14:R99. Available at: http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/14/4/R99. IA before FFTP 1.7(1.19-2.63) Yes Positive France
70 2012 Yanhua, C, et al.  Reproductive Variables and Risk of Breast Malignant and Benign Tumours in Yunnan Province, China. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012;13, 2179-2184. Available at: http://www.apocpcontrol.org/paper_file/issue_abs/Volume13_No5/2179-84%204.17%20Che%20Yanhua.pdf
1 AB OR 2.5(1.38-4.52)
> 2 AB OR 12.31 (5.02-30.20)
Yes Positive China
71 2013 Brauner,C, et al. Induced abortion and breast cancer risk among parous women: A Danish cohort study. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2013.
Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aogs.12107/abstract
0.95 (0.83-1.09)   Negative Denmark
72 2013

Kamath R, et al. A study on risk factors of breast cancer among patients attending the tertiary care hospital in Udupi district. Indian J Community Med 2013;38(2)95-99.

Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2013/38/2/95/112440

0.95

6.38 (0.99-40.81)
  Positive India
73 2013 Jabeen S, et al. Breast cancer and some epidemiological risk factors: A hospital based study, J Dhaka Med Coll 2013;22(1)61-66. 20.62
CI (12.85-32.51)
Yes Positive Bangladesh
74 2013 Huang, Yubei, et. al. A meta-analysis of the association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk among Chinese females. Cancer Causes Control. Cancer Causes Control Accepted Nov 11, 2013.

Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10552-013-0325-7
One IA
1.44 95%
(1.29-1.59)
Two IA
1.76 95%
(1.39-2.22)
IThree IA
1.89 95%
(1.4-2.55)
Yes Positive China
             
             


BC:

Breast cancer

FFTP: 

First full-term
pregnancy

IA:

Induced abortion

Luminal A cancer: 

Estrogen positive
and HER2 negative

Nulliparous: 

Never given birth

OR:

Odds ratio



 

 

 

 



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